Wednesday, October 31, 2007

US Patent 7288773 - InAs nanowire field emitter

This patent, based on a collaboration between FEI company and Philips electronics, teaches a semiconductor field emitter formed from InAs nanowires. Claim 1 reads:

1. An electron source suitable for use in a charged-particle apparatus, in which source a beam of electrons can be extracted from an electrode that is subjected to at least one of an electric potential, thermal excitation and photonic excitation, characterized in that at least part of the electrode comprises semiconductor material having a conduction band that is quantized into discrete energy levels.

The breadth of this patent claim is somewhat surprising since semiconducting single walled carbon nanotubes, which have quantized conductance bands, have been proposed for field emission over a decade ago (see or US Patent 5,773,921). Unfortunately this patent was allowed without any consideration of such prior art.

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US Patent 7288468 - Reduction/Oxidation treatment to increase efficiency of luminescent nanocrystals

This patent from Samsung teaches a method for forming quantum dots that have improved luminescence of blue light. Claims 1 and 16 read:

1. A method for improving the luminescent efficiency of semiconductor nanocrystals which comprises surface-treating the semiconductor nanocrystals with a reducing or oxidizing agent, wherein the nanocrystals are coordinated by an organic dispersant.

16. A semiconductor nanocrystal having a chemically reduced or oxidized surface, wherein the semiconductor nanocrystal is coordinated by an organic dispersant.


Tuesday, October 30, 2007

US Patent 7288134- Manufacture of dumbell shaped nanoparticles

This patent from IBM deals with the manufacture of dumbell (or flower) shaped nanoparticles useful for biotags. The dumbell shape provide for a larger magnetic signal for smaller nanoparticles that are easier to disperse in a solvent. Claim 1 reads:

1. A process of making dumbbell-shaped nanoparticles, said process comprising: mixing nanoparticles with a noble metal precursor and a reducing agent in solvent, wherein each of said nanoparticles comprises a hydrophobic outer coating; heating the mixture; cooling said mixture to room temperature; modifying said hydrophobic outer coating into a hydrophilic outer coating; precipitating product from said mixture; and dispersing said product in solvent to produce nanoparticle dispersion.


US Patent 7287412 - Palladium nanoparticle hydrogen sensor

Palladium nanowires have previously been used in hydrogen sensors but with limited operational temperature ranges and hydrogen concentrations. This patent from Nano-Proprietary teaches an improved configuration using palladium nanoparticles or nanowires in a resistive layer. Claim 1 reads:

1. An apparatus for sensing hydrogen comprising: a substrate comprising an insulating material; a conductive patterned layer deposited on the substrate; and a plurality of nanoparticles comprising palladium deposited on the conductive patterned layer, wherein the conductive patterned layer is oxidized to form a resistive layer; wherein some of the nanoparticles and portions of the resistive layer from at least one conductive path in the presence of hydrogen.


Friday, October 26, 2007

Are logic gates optimum for computation?

Currently their is a lot of interest in crossbar switching networks as architectures to achieve molecular electronic devices. The advantages of such crossbar architectures is that:

a) Crossbars have simple, periodic structures that are scalable to nanometer dimension and are subject to mass production on the nanoscale using techniques such as nanoimprint lithography and self-assembly.

b) Crossbars are becoming an integral component to high density memory devices using thin film materials such as chalcogenides, TCNQ, perovskites, etc. with various programmable electronic properties to form MRAM, FeRAM, and other upcoming memory devices. The technologies developed to read and write data to such crossbar memories may be extended to read/write data to other crossbar electronic devices such as arithmetic processors.

c) Crossbars are also becoming an important component in programmable logic architectures since they allow for high density switching arrays to be formed. These architectures allow for reconfiguration and self-repair providing for more adaptable electronic devices and provide a bridge between application specific integrated circuits and general purpose processors.

Currently Hewlett-Packard and Nantero are the two companies most active in crossbar nanoelectronic designs with HP forming the crossbars by sandwiching rotaxane-based molecular films between crossing nanowires and Nantero using carbon nanotube ribbons as the crossbar switches. Both of these companies are using the crossbars to replicate basic logic functions to build arithmetic circuitry
(see for example

However, replicating logic devices may not be the optimum route to the use of such crossbar arrays. While logic gates have played their part very well in the history of computation they may not be the optimum architectures from which to build future generations of computational systems. For example, addition circuitry may be constructed from logic gates but multiplication, division, and other computational processes are more difficult and conventional computation simply resorts to repeated addition or subtraction to perform multiplication and addition which ultimately slows down processing time.

I currently have a patent pending for one such alternative which combines crossbar switching circuitry (not necessarily nanoscale) with other analog and digital circuitry to achieve a more efficient computational system. The patent application is currently available for public review at the following web site:


Thursday, October 25, 2007

US Patent 7286235 - Surface plasmon resonance device with nanoporous dielectric

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a technique used to detect biomolecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Prisms used for SPR include a buffer layer having a refractive index that matches the sample under detection but the limitation of a matching refractive index reduces the materials that can be used for such buffer layers. This patent from Samsung teaches using nanoporous dielectric material with tunable refractive properties to expand operability. Claim 1 reads:

1. A surface plasmon resonance device comprising: a transparent substrate; a porous dielectric layer formed on a top surface of the transparent substrate; a thin metal layer formed on the porous dielectric layer; and a prism attached on a bottom surface of the transparent layer.

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Wednesday, October 24, 2007

US Patent 7286210 - Carbon nanotube optical sensor with wavelength tuning

This patent discloses an interesting method of tuning carbon nanotube optical sensors to particular wavelengths by using mechanical pressure or electrical charge. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method for causing a semiconducting carbon nanotube material to act as a passive sensor of a physical quantity, the method comprising: (a) controlling the semiconducting carbon nanotube material in accordance with the physical quantity to cause a change to an optical absorption or reflection characteristic of the semiconducting carbon nanotube material which depends on light wavelength but not on light amplitude; (b) applying light to the semiconducting carbon nanotube material; (c) receiving the light which has been applied to the semiconducting carbon nanotube material; (d) determining the change to the optical absorption or reflection characteristic from the light receive in step (c); and (e) determining the physical quantity from the change determined in step (d).


US Patent 7285897 - Micromachined sensors on curved surface

Micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays are a recently developed component of some medical imaging devices. This patent from General Electric proposes a construction of such arrays on curved surfaces to improve field of view. Claim 1 reads:

1. A sensor device comprising: a support structure comprising a spine having a profile that is generally curved and a multiplicity of teeth extending from one side of said curved spine; and a multiplicity of micromachined sensors supported by said support structure in positions whereby a curved aperture is provided.

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Tuesday, October 23, 2007

US Patent 7285591 - Dispersion of nanotubes in polymer using liquid

This patent from the University of Pennsylvania is based on the use of a liquid to prevent agglomeration when dispersing carbon nanotubes in polymer composites. Claim 1 reads:

1. A process, comprising: providing a nanotube dispersion comprising a plurality of nanotubes and a liquid; contacting said nanotube dispersion with a polymer melt; mixing said nanotube dispersion with said polymer melt to provide a nanotube composite melt; and removing vaporized liquid from said nanotube composite melt.

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US Patent 7285167 - Carbon fiber concrete

Carbon nanomaterials have been proposed as a strengthening component for a variety of polymer and metallic materials. This patent from Ogden Technologies teaches texturizing carbon fiber materials (including CNTs) and using epoxy as a dispersing agent to form an improved concrete product. Claim 1 reads:

1. A concrete product comprising concrete and carbon fibers, wherein the carbon fibers comprise texturized carbon fibers coated with a dispersing agent.

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Monday, October 22, 2007

SparkIP- Patent Cluster Mapping

I recently found the above website which provides some very useful patent clustering data based on a simple inquiry search.


Wednesday, October 17, 2007

US Patent 7283716 - Metamaterials in flexible polymer

In recent years there has been an increase in interest of negative refractive index materials which are usually artificial periodic structures having a negative permeability and permittivity that are capable of new or improved optical properties. This patent teaches an interesting construction of such a negative index material that allows for tuning of the materials properties by embedding an array of dielectric material in a flexible polymer which may be deformed by a MEMS or other actuator. Claims 1 and 18 read:

1. A device comprising: a photonic crystal having a periodic array of dielectric material embedded in a flexible polymer, said photonic crystal exhibiting negative refraction; and means for applying a variable amount of force to said photonic crystal to induce physical changes in the crystal structure of said photonic crystal.

18. A device comprising: a photonic crystal having an array of silicon pillars embedded in a flexible polymer, said photonic crystal exhibitin negative refraction; and at least one micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) actuator coupled to said photonic crystal, said actuator configured to apply variable force to said photonic crystal to induce physical changes in the crystal structure of said photonic crystal, and to provide substantially uniform stretching of said photonic crystal.


US Patent 7282742 - Conjugated polymer crosslinking using CNTs

Conjugated polymers have semiconducting properties and which may be used in a variety of applications such as flexible film/printable photovoltaics for which solid state electronics is not applicable. However, the lower electron mobility of conjugated polymers make them an inferior material than silicon based devices. This patent from Toray Industries teaches the use of small percentages of carbon nanotubes which facilitate cross linking of the conjugated polymer to increase the electron mobility without interfering with the semiconductor properties. Claim 1 reads:

1. An organic semiconductor material comprising carbon nanotubes and a conjugated polymer, wherein the carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the conjugated polymer, the weight fraction of the carbon nanotubes is 3 percent or less relative to the conjugated polymer, and the conjugated polymer comprises a straight-chain conjugated polymer.

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Tuesday, October 16, 2007

US Patent 7282456 - Repair of nanostructures using guiding structure

One of the problems with many of the proposals of nanoelectronic devices is that the nanowires and similar structures used to form the devices are subject to some degree of defects which must be compensated for by the architecture design. This patent from Princeton University teaches a method of reducing such defects in nanoscale structures by a process somewhat analogous to annealing. One of the key insights was the inclusion of a guiding surface which controls the nanostructure height leading to high aspect ratios. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method of reducing geometrical and/or structural defects in a nanoscale device having at least one nanostructure with a minimum dimension about one micrometer or less comprising the steps of: providing the nanoscale device; placing a guiding surface adjacent an exposed surface of the nanostructure; liquifying the nanostructure for a period of time; and permitting the liquified nanostructure to resolidify.


US Patent 7281419 - Plural scanning probe tips formed of different materials and radius

The use of scanning probe technology originated in the 1980's for microscopy on the nanoscale and has gradually been applied to other nanoscale operations such as lithography, mask repair, and data storage. This patent from the University of Illinois teaches the use of scanning probe tips formed of differing materials and sizes on a common probe array to enable a wider range of operations such as multiple resolution processing. Claim 1 reads:

1. A probe array, comprising: a handle, a first probe, comprising a first shank, connected to the handle, and a first tip having a radius of curvature of at least 300 nm, a second probe, comprising a second shank, connected to the handle, and a second tip having a radius of curvature less than 300 nm; where the first tip and the second tip are made of different materials, and the first tip comprises an elastomer.

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Monday, October 15, 2007

Patent Landscape for Electron Emitting Nanomaterials

I recently published an article in the Nanotechnology Law and Business Journal ( exploring the U.S. patent landscape for electron emitting nanomaterials. These materials represent an early area of commercialization for nanotechnology in the electronics area and have already been the source of some legal conflicts (Nano-Proprietary v. Canon lawsuit). Some of the currently proposed applications that use these materials include flat panel displays, lighting devices, microwave electronics, and lithography tools. The article discusses why nanomaterials are beneficial for these applications as well as the major patent holders for these nanomaterials.

For those interested in the patent data for these nanomaterials that I used in writing this article(Excel spreadsheet containing 300 patents sorted according to assignee and application area) send an E-mail to with nanomaterial database in the title.

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Thursday, October 11, 2007

US Patent 7279832 - Group IV nanoparticle light source

CdSe and CdS material have been favored candidates as nanoparticles used in lighting applications however, due to the toxic nature of these materials, other nanoparticle materials would be desirable. This patent from Innovalight presents some basic claims toward silicon or germanium based nanoparticles in white light sources. Claims 1 and 28 recite:

1. A light emitting device comprising: (a) a primary light source which emits primary light; and (b) a phosphor material comprising a plurality of nanoparticles, the nanoparticles comprising a Group IV semiconductor, which absorbs at least a portion of the primary light and emits a secondary light, wherein the secondary light or the combination of the secondary light with the primary light comprises a white light.

28. A phosphor material comprising a plurality of domains deposited on an organic film, each domain comprising a plurality of luminescent semiconductor nanoparticles having a substantially monodisperse size distribution.


US Patent 7279760 - Nanotube cantilever relay

The use of micromechanical switches is fairly common for a variety of applications in communications and optical devices. This patent from Chalmers Intellectual Property Rights teaches embodiments of nanotube cantilevers for such switching devices. Claim 1 reads:

1. A nanotube device, comprising a nanotube having a longitudinal extension extending in a longitudinal direction of said nanotube and a lateral extension extending in a lateral direction transverse to the longitudinal direction, said nanotube including a first part extending in the longitudinal direction, a second part connected to said first part and extending in the longitudinal direction, said second part having a free end spaced a distance from said first part, the nanotube device further including a structure extending at least substantially in the longitudinal direction at least generally parallel to said first part of said nanotube to support said first part of said nanotube, and first means operable to exert a force upon said second part in a first direction defined by the lateral extension, characterized in that said second part of said nanotube protrudes in the longitudinal direction beyond said structure such that said free end is unsupported, and when the force exceeds a predetermined level, said second part of said nanotube is subject to flex in a the first direction to thereby close a first electrical circuit.

Wednesday, October 10, 2007

US Patent 7279433 - Fabrication of boron nitride nanoparticle dielectric layer

There is a variety of interest in the use of low-k dielectric materials to improve electrical connections in electronic devices. This patent from Freescale Semiconductor teaches using boron nitride nanotubes as the material for such a dielectric. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method for forming a dielectric layer, comprising: providing a substrate; providing a first material comprising a suspension of boron nitride nanoparticles in a liquid medium; and forming a dielectric layer on the substrate from the suspension through an evaporative process.

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US Patent 7279337 - Nucleic acid sequencing using modulation signal

Rapid sequencing of nucleic acids has been achieved via the use of nanopores which provide a channel for a molecular strand to pass through and be detected. This patent from Agilent Technologies teaches a method and apparatus that employs a modulated bias voltage and a detection of tunneling current in such a sequencing operation. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method of sequencing molecules of a polymer, comprising the steps of: centering a fixed bias voltage across a pair of nano-electrodes separated by a channel therebetween, the bias voltage corresponding to an energy difference between any two internal energy levels of a molecule of interest; modulating the bias voltage with a modulation waveform; sequentially urging the molecules of a polymer comprised of linked molecules including at least one of the molecules of interest through the channel; deriving an electrical signal indicative of the molecule of interest from tunneling current through the molecule of interest measured while the molecule of interest is between the nano-electrodes as the polymer passes through the channel; and identifying the molecule of interest by comparing the derived electrical signal to known values of the signal for the molecule of interest.

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Tuesday, October 09, 2007

US Patent 7277872 - Quantum computing with resource state

Quantum computing usually depends on entanglement between properties (e.g. polarization, spin) of fundamental particles (e.g. photons, electrons) which allows for a degree of parallel processing which is advantageous for certain computational problems. However, a problem of decoherence exists that leads to a limit in the number of fundamental particles that can be entangled. In order to overcome this problem this patent teaches a technique of using a common resource state entangled with a plurality of quantum states (as opposed to a plurality of separately entangled quantum states). Claim 1 reads:

1. A method for quantum computing, the method which comprises: providing a plurality of quantum systems each having at least two different states; preparing a resource state of the quantum systems wherein all of the quantum systems are in a common superimposed entangled state; in the resource state, making one-system measurements on the quantum systems; processing outcomes of the one-system measurements; and outputting a result of the processing.


Friday, October 05, 2007

US Patent 7276844 - Photoimagable CNT field emitter paste

In order to mass produce field emission displays using carbon nanotubes it may be necessary to integrate CNT processing with current semiconductor manufacturing methods. This patent from du Pont teaches the use of a paste that includes both carbon nanotubes and photosensitive material to facilitate photopatterning of CNT electron emitters. Claim 1 reads:

1. A field emitter cathode comprising (a) a substrate, and (b) a field emitter cathode paste composition comprising a composition of carbon nanotubes, particles and one or more members of the group consisting of a photoinitiator, a developable binder and a photohardenable monomer.

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US Patent 7276432 - Artificial atom fiber

Artificial atoms are basically nanocrystals/quantum dots that confine multiple electrons in a nanoscale volume so as to replicate the chemical properties of atoms. By pumping in or removing electrons to such artificial atoms the chemical properties which the artificial atoms replicate can be changed. This patent claims a method of programming such artificial atoms in a bulk material. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method for real-time control of dopants in the interior of a bulk material, after a time of initial manufacture, the method comprising carrying energy through at least one conduit in the bulk material to a plurality of confinement regions; confining one or more charge carriers within each of the plurality of confinement regions in the bulk material to form respective artificial atoms that have a doping effect upon the bulk material; controlling the energy carried to the plurality of confinement regions; and adjusting an energy level or quantity of the one or more charge carriers forming each respective artificial atom in real time; to alter the doping effect on the bulk material.

While artificial atoms formed on a planar substrate were known to the prior art the innovation from this patent seems to be the inclusion of the artificial atoms within a bulk material such as within a fiber. However, this may be fairly difficult to manufacture since most quantum dot fabrication and electrical wire patterning methods are based on semiconductor processing methods that are limited to planar processing. Also, considering that one of the inventors (Wil McCarthy) is a science fiction writer and one of his novels (The Wellstone) served as the inspiration for this technology it may not be well grounded in current scientific or technological capabilities. There are some companies such as Ball Semiconductor working on non-planar processes and various research is being done on self assembly methods to produce 3D wiring networks within bulk materials however the patent does not really seem to teach or provide adequate direction on how to integrate these features to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to make or use the invention.


Thursday, October 04, 2007

US Patent 7276389 - Metal oxide coated CNT array

There is some interest in using arrays of carbon nanotubes, which are one of the best developed nanostructures, as templates to form nanotubes of other materials. This patent from Samsung presents some very basic claims to the use of carbon nanostructure templates to form metal oxide nanostructures. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method of making an array of metal oxide nanostructures comprising the steps of: providing a substrate supporting an array of projecting carbon nanostructures; and forming a metal oxide coating overlying the surfaces of the carbon nanostructures.

However, the examiner may have overlooked prior art such as US 6,740,910 ( which discloses metal oxide coated nanotube arrays used to form FETs (see column 6, lines 25-31).


US Patent 7276385 - Nanoparticles for circuit repair

Kovio is a company focusing on the use of printing technologies to fabricate electronics with less expense. This patent uses laser irradiation of a thin film of nanoparticles to selectively form wiring patterns for circuit repair and subsequent removal of the nanoparticles that were not irradiated. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method of repairing a circuit, comprising the steps of: a) depositing a thin film composition comprising nanoparticles of at least one electrically functional material on or over a region of said circuit to be repaired such that said thin film composition contacts first and second elements of said circuit; b) irradiating at least a portion of the thin film composition with a wavelength of light for a length of time and at an intensity sufficient to convert said nanoparticles to an electronically functional film, fuse said nanoparticles or bind said nanoparticles to each other; and c) locally rinsing said irradiated thin film with a developer to remove non-irradiated portions or portions adjacent to the irradiated portion of the composition.

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Wednesday, October 03, 2007

US Patent 7276285 - HfN substrate for CNT growth

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a popular technique used to mass produce arrays of carbon nanotubes. However, it can be difficult to integrate the fabrication of the nanotubes with fabrication of electrical wiring used to form a useful device from the nanotubes. This patent from Honeywell International teaches a hafnium nitride based substrate which facilitates the fabrication of both the nanotube arrays and the conductive wiring in a common substrate. Claim 1 reads:

1. A structure comprising: a substrate; an oxide layer on the substrate; an HfN layer on the oxide layer; a passivation layer on the HfN layer, having at least one via through the passivation layer to the HfN; and a catalyst island formed on the at least one via connected to the HfN layer, wherein the catalyst island is formed by exposing catalytic material to a temperature sufficient to form a ball having a diameter and a thickness, wherein the diameter is similar to the thickness.

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US Patent 7276279 - Metal microparticle sintering using metal nanoparticles

This patent from Hitachi teaches the use of metallic nanoparticles to fill the voids when sintering microparticles. Claim 1 reads:

1. A circuit board, comprising: a substrate; and a wiring conductor provided on the substrate, the wiring conductor comprising a sintered structure comprising metal particles of 0.5-10 micron average particle sizes bonded to each other through the intermediary of metal nanoparticles, and conducting metal provided in voids in the sintered structure.

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US Patent 7276185 - Fused silver nanocrystal electrical conductor

Using microsized and nanosized metallic particles as fillers is known to achieve a variety of conductive polymers and adhesives. However, difficulty in handling nanoscale particles and the lack of a uniform distribution of such particles in a binding matrix have made it difficult to form conductors with nanocrystalline metals. This patent from Denso Corporation teaches a sintering process to form silver microparticles from nanocrystals to facilitate the incorporation of these materials in a matrix. Claim 1 reads:

1. A conductor composition comprising conductive particles (30a) with electrical conductivity and a solvent, wherein said conductive particles (30a) comprise crystallized Ag fillers (31) having a crystal size of 10 nm or less, and each of said crystallized Ag fillers (31) having a particle diameter of 0.1 .mu.m or more and 20 .mu.m or less.

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Tuesday, October 02, 2007

US Patent 7276172 - Nanowire crossbar fabrication using nucleic acid block copolymers

A primary advantages of nanowire crossbar arrays, which are being proposed for high density memory and computational devices, is that they are based on regular, periodic structures. This patent from Sony uses co-polymer self assembly, which is very good at establishing such periodic structures, to form nanowire crossbars. Claim 1 reads:

1. A method for preparing a nanowire crossbar structure, comprising: forming a composite structure on a substrate, the composite structure comprising a nucleic acid-block copolymer having equidistant nucleic acid-catalyst binding sites and at least one catalyst nanoparticle functionalized to bind specifically to at least one of the nucleic acid-catalyst binding sites; and growing at least one nanowire from the at least one catalyst nanoparticle as part of the nanowire crossbar structure; wherein: the substrate is etched to form grooves for receiving nanowires prior to forming the composite structure on the substrate; and the grooves are formed to a diameter of from about 2 nm to about 40 nm.

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US Patent 7276088 - CNT hair colorant

The use of nanostructured material in general is not new to cosmetics but this patent from DuPont specifically focuses on the use of carbon nanotubes as an ingredient of an improved hair colorant. The nanotubes are used as a black pigment with improved smoothing and volumizing effects. Claim 1 recites:

1. A method for coloring hair, eyebrows or eyelashes comprising the sequential steps of: a) applying a polymer composition to hair, eyebrows or eyelashes to form a first polymer treated layer; b) contacting the first polymer treated layer of step (a) with a chemically functionalized carbon nanotube to form a first colorant layer; c) applying a polymer composition to the first colorant layer of step (b) to form a second polymer treated layer; d) contacting the second polymer treated layer of step c) with a chemically functionalized carbon nanotube to form a second colorant layer; and e) optionally, repeating steps (a)-(d) one or more times.

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Monday, October 01, 2007

the myths of innovation - by scott berkun

I usually only post about patents but I recently ran across this book which does the best job I've ever seen at analyzing what makes innovation work (and not work). The author does an excellent job at deconstructing some of the more popular misconceptions about invention such as the myth of epiphany, that people love new ideas, and the lone inventor. If you liked "The Tipping Point" (Gladwell) or "Critical Mass" (Ball) this should definitely be on your reading list.

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US Patent 7274998 - Near-field photolithography using nano-LEDs

This patent from Intel presents a very interesting alternative to conventional optical lithography that employs a nanowire crossbar arrays of intersecting p-doped and n-doped nanowires. The intersections of the nanowires form light emitting diodes which may be used to pattern a resist of a substrate at nanoscale dimensions. The device acts as a sort of programmable mask which may save a great amount of cost in high resolution semiconductor manufacture. Interestingly this device uses a nanowire crossbar as a major component for implementation which is similar to the nanoscale crossbar used by HP in constructing high density memory and logic devices. Claim 1 reads:

1. An apparatus comprising: an array of nanowires placed at a distance to a resist layer, the array forming a plurality of light emitting diodes (LEDs), the distance corresponding to a near field region of light emitted by the LEDs with respect to the resist layer; and a control circuit coupled to the array to control the LEDs to emit the light to pattern a feature in the resist layer.

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