The following patents are based on a review of 805 patents classified by the U.S. patent office as involved in biological or medical applications of nanotechnology (class 977, subclasses 904-931). The results are based on claim breadth and are not necessarily indicative of technological or economic importance.
1. U.S. Patent 6,541,617 - Clinical Micro Sensors, Inc. (priority October 27, 1998)
Claim 1 - "A colloid particle comprising at least one covalently attached electron transfer moiety (ETM)."
2. U.S. Patent 5,310,669 - The Trustees of Dartmouth College (priority June 22, 1992)
Claim 1 - "A substrate comprising a fullerene-coated surface having a biological substance attached to the fullerene-coated surface."
3. U.S. Patent 5,972,720 - Roche Diagnostics GmbH (priority June 5, 1996)
Claim 1 - "Colloidal particles to the surface of which are co-adsorbed: 1) biomolecules and 2) polyethylene glycol substituted by thiol and/or disulfide groups."
4. U.S. Patent 6,397,102 - CeramOptec Industries, Inc. (priority Sept. 18, 1998)
Claim 1 - "A photoactivatible drug delivery system comprising: a photoactivatible fullerene molecule containing a photosensitive element within its structure; and a drug compound is complexed with said photoactivatible fullerene molecule."
5. U.S. Patent 6,180,389 - The Research and Development Institute, Inc. (priority Jan. 3, 1997)
Claim 1 - "A virion-constrained nanoparticle comprising a plant virion coat protein shell surrounding a nanopartice of non-viral origin selected from the group consisting of organic, inorganic and organo- metallic materials."
6. U.S. Patent 6,403,653 - The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Army and Nanoscale Materials, Inc. (priority June 2, 2000)
Claim 1 - "A topical skin protectant formulation for neutralizing chemical warfare agents into less toxic products comprising: a barrier base cream; and one or more metal oxide reactive nanoparticles as an active moiety."
7. U.S. Patent 6,379,683 - L'Oreal (priority - March 2, 1999)
Claim 1 - "Nanocapsules comprising a lipid core forming or containing a lipophilic active principle, and a water-insoluble continuous polymeric envelope, wherein said polymeric envelope comprises at least one dendritic polyester polymer which contains terminal hydroxyl groups."
8. U.S. Patent 6,544,732 - Illumina, Inc. (priority - May 20, 1999)
Claim 1 - "A composition comprising: a) a substrate with a surface comprising discrete sites, wherein said discrete sites are wells; and b) a population of microspheres randomly distributed on said discrete sites, wherein at least one of said microspheres comprises a nanocrystal."
9. U.S. Patent 6,254,890 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology (priority - Dec. 12, 1997)
Claim 1 - "A method for the delivery of nucleic acids comprising: forming nucleic acid containing nanospheres, wherein said nanospheres are sub-150 nm polymer spheres of which at least 50% of the size distribution of nanospheres is sub-100 nm; and releasing said nucleic acids from said nanospheres over a period of time."
10. U.S. Patent 5,993,856 - FemmePharma (priority - Jan. 15, 1997)
Claim 1 - "A micro or nanoparticulate drug formulation for local or regional topical administration of an effective amount to provide relief from symptoms associated with a disease or disorder in a region in patients in need thereof, wherein the effective amount is less than the effective amount when the drug is administered systemically."
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